Of course, it must explain the facts. The truth is that the whole fabric of our knowledge is one matted felt of pure hypothesis confirmed and refined by induction. By saying that methodeutic logic is nothing but heuretic, Peirce is saying that his methodeutic is nothing but a device for demonstrating how the qualities and relations of qualities of (or by) “abduction alone” are to be sought in “the art of discovery or invention.” He also tells us that methodeutic logic may resort “to certain methods not admissible in” critical logic. "[39] In 1903 Peirce called pragmatism "the logic of abduction" and said that the pragmatic maxim gives the necessary and sufficient logical rule to abduction in general. x inductive, deductive, abductive. [ The main problem of belief revision is that the new information may be inconsistent with the prior web of beliefs, while the result of the incorporation cannot be inconsistent. (Peirce, 1905/1955, What Pragmatism Is, p. 258). X Abduction is performed by finding a set such that Once we remove abduction and retroduction from the realm of vagueness and can clearly delineate these processes and their applications for all to see, we can begin to develop effective ways of teaching others how to effectively apply these reasoning processes to all sorts of situations. u T ) . In 1910 Peirce made a three-way distinction between probability, verisimilitude, and plausibility, and defined plausibility with a normative "ought": "By plausibility, I mean the degree to which a theory ought to recommend itself to our belief independently of any kind of evidence other than our instinct urging us to regard it favorably. Peirce held that all deduction can be put into the form of the categorical syllogism Barbara (AAA-1). Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi. In the face of unexpected or surprising facts and observations about a situation, retroduction helps create a new order that enables the formulation a possible, valid or fitting explanation of those facts. } . x {\displaystyle H'\subseteq H} as well as A side benefit of being able to define abductive reasoning in this way will be the ability to clear up the confusion between abduction and induction, allowing us to clearly delineate inductive reasoning as well. He started out in the 1860s treating hypothetical inference in a number of ways which he eventually peeled away as inessential or, in some cases, mistaken: In 1867, Peirce's "",[27] hypothetical inference always deals with a cluster of characters (call them P′, P′′, P′′′, etc.) The aesthetic is a state of potentiality from which we respond to and select among qualities and values, based upon the relations among the qualities themselves for achieving the aesthetic ideal–rather than upon their value in the production of outcomes (Chiasson, 2000b). Today abduction remains most commonly understood as induction from characters and extension of a known rule to cover unexplained circumstances. Instead he used "intuition" usually in the sense of a cognition devoid of logical determination by, For a relevant discussion of Peirce and the aims of abductive inference, see McKaughan, Daniel J. Peirce studied Schiller intently in his early twenties, then put aside this work for many years (Ketner, 1998, pp. "PAP" ["Prolegomena to an Apology for Pragmatism"], MS 293 c. 1906. It is defined as "The use of an unclear premise based on observations, pursuing theories to try to explain it" (Rose et al., 2020, p. 258)[52][53], In anthropology, Alfred Gell in his influential book Art and Agency defined abduction (after Eco[54]) as "a case of synthetic inference 'where we find some very curious circumstances, which would be explained by the supposition that it was a case of some general rule, and thereupon adopt that supposition'". {\displaystyle a} ABDUCTION: Age of the Aggrieved Party: For the offence of Kidnapping, section 361 of IPC lays down that the age of the aggrieved person should be below 16 in case of males and below 18 in case of females. ) expressed by: Using these inverted conditionals together with the opinion In the same year, Peirce wrote that reaching a hypothesis may involve placing a surprising observation under either a newly hypothesized rule or a hypothesized combination of a known rule with a peculiar state of facts, so that the phenomenon would be not surprising but instead either necessarily implied or at least likely. So, let us take up the latter assertion first. Peirce, C. S. (1903), Harvard lectures on pragmatism, Peirce used the term "intuition" not in the sense of an instinctive or anyway half-conscious inference as people often do currently. Thus “retroactive” means choosing to go back to an earlier date and make something operative as of that date. and Peirce claims abduction as the crown jewel of logic. The best explanation for this that youcan think of is that they made up. Yu, Chong Ho (1994), "Is There a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis? into two components, one of which is a normal logic program, used to generate [35][36][37], In 1902 Peirce wrote that he now regarded the syllogistical forms and the doctrine of extension and comprehension (i.e., objects and characters as referenced by terms), as being less fundamental than he had earlier thought. ↩︎, Peirce labeled the third branch of the sciences of discovery “idioscopy,” placing with in this division the physical sciences (physics) and the psychic, or human, sciences (including psychology, linguistics, and history). For example, in a billiard game, after glancing and seeing the eight ball moving towards us, we may abduce that the cue ball struck the eight ball. Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy. These methods have also been extended to modal logic. entails How can either of the first two senses of abduction be reconciled with Peirce’s contention that abduction cannot be in anyway psychological? Indeed, many abductions are rejected or heavily modified by subsequent abductions before they ever reach this stage. Charles Peirce’s Guess at the Riddle: Grounds for Human Significance. Fann, K.T. Ketner, K. L. {\displaystyle a} ( {\displaystyle T} 329-330), Also, by taking advantage of the broader range of subjects and tools available to the unique analytical method of Peirce’s methodeutic it is possible to begin building a clearer understanding of what abduction as a mathematical concept (and as an aesthetic method, also dependent upon mathematical description) might be. [4][5], In the 1990s, as computing power grew, the fields of law,[6] computer science, and artificial intelligence research[7] spurred renewed interest in the subject of abduction. These definitions would take us a long way toward solving the “mystery” about what Peirce meant by his concept of abduction and toward making “right reasoning” a teachable skill. For example, given that "Wikis can be edited by anyone" ($${\displaystyle a_{1}}$$) and "Wikipedia is a wiki" ($${\displaystyle a_{2}}$$), it follows that "Wikipedia can be edited by anyone" ($${\displaystyle b}$$). Retroduction is a phenomenon that is universally employed by human beings, especially when faced with a crisis or a situation where we are clueless about the next steps. Consequently, to discover is simply to expedite an event that would occur sooner or later, if we had not troubled ourselves to make the discovery. Abduction, then, would not actually BE musement, or BE the reaction to a surprising fact and an ensuing hunch. {\displaystyle \circledcirc } In J. Ransdell (Ed. What does retroduction mean? He specifically asserts that “the N. A. {\displaystyle a} {\displaystyle \mathbf {Y} } X Thus mathematics informs the “second science” of philosophy‹and both mathematics and philosophy inform the third idioscopy (which are classificatory sciences). e [15], Writing in 1910, Peirce admits that "in almost everything I printed before the beginning of this century I more or less mixed up hypothesis and induction" and he traces the confusion of these two types of reasoning to logicians' too "narrow and formalistic a conception of inference, as necessarily having formulated judgments from its premises."[26]. (1902), application to the Carnegie Institution, see MS L75.329-330, from. There are at least two ways to relate data collection to analysis in the research process. and Josephson, John R., and Josephson, Susan G. (1995, eds.). One of the most intriguing mysteries in American philosophy falls under the question: “Just what does Charles Sanders Peirce’s concept of abductive reasoning comprise?” Peirce used the terms “abduction” and “retroduction” interchangeably as names for a distinct form of logical inference, as well as for the method by which hypotheses are engendered. Her book, Peirce’s Pragmatism: A Dialogue for Educators, has been accepted for publication as the first volume in the Studies in Pragmatism and Values Series. In M. Bergman & J. Queiroz (Eds. Y O The American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce introduced abduction into modern logic. the grass could be wet from dew. Four of these apparently dichotomous descriptions follow: Adding to the confusion is Peirce’s identification of logic as one of three branches of normative science (aesthetics and ethics are the other two), meaning that the category of logic provides the norms (standards, rules, methods) by which each of the methods of reasoning are to be performed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press). 1 H Read "Abduction as an Aspect of Retroduction, Semiotica - Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies / Revue de l'Association Internationale de Sémiotique" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. X 1. Chiasson, P. & Davis, D. (1996). {\displaystyle b_{X}\,\!} In other words, deduction derives the consequences of the assumed. ∴ = Black, M. (1962). {\displaystyle a} In its method, methodeutic is less strict than critic. Awbrey, Jon, and Awbrey, Susan (1995), "Interpretation as Action: The Risk of Inquiry". one conditional opinion for each value a For ′ Peirce even ventures so far as to insist that pessimists cannot properly perform abductive reasoning, since pessimism closes off entire categories of possibilities and is thus a hindrance to obeying the “law of liberty” (Chiasson, 2000a). (2001). ↩︎, One of these models (Davis’s Relational Thinking Styles) has made it possible to develop a non-verbal test of the patterns of each of the inferencing types and the contexts for which the inferences are being made. (Indeed, it turns out that some swans are black.). according to The Role of Optimism in Abductive Reasoning. McKaughan, Daniel J. For, within the full process of “engendering a hypothesis (which is a retroductive process),” resides the subordinate process of noticing an anomaly and getting an explanatory hunch (by means of abduction). In various writings in the 1900s[25][40] he said that the conduct of abduction (or retroduction) is governed by considerations of economy, belonging in particular to the economics of research. Weiner, P. Abductive reasoning allows inferring A common assumption is that the effects of the hypotheses are independent, that is, for every Since mathematics is the “first science” of discovery, it depends upon no other of the sciences of discovery and informs them all. Hypothesis (abductive inference) is inference through an icon (also called a likeness). Parret, H. A statue of a goddess, for example, in some senses actually becomes the goddess in the mind of the beholder; and represents not only the form of the deity but also her intentions (which are adduced from the feeling of her very presence). “Retrofit” means choosing to go back and modify an earlier model of something with an improvement of some sort. , their effects are known to be For example, given that "Wikis can be edited by anyone" ( , where Basically, it involves forming a conclusion from the information that is known. [60], In addition to inference of function preconditions, abduction has been used to automate inference of invariants for program loops,[61] inference of specifications of unknown code,[62] and in synthesis of the programs themselves.[63]. Despite many possible explanations for any physical process that we observe, we tend to abduce a single explanation (or a few explanations) for this process in the expectation that we can better orient ourselves in our surroundings and disregard some possibilities. [57], The question Gell asks in the book is, "how does it initially 'speak' to people?" Therefore, through abduction, Gell claims that art can have the kind of agency that plants the seeds that grow into cultural myths. In addition, Peirce placed ethics into a subordinate relationship to aesthetics (the science of the ideal), saying that ethics must be informed by aesthetics. Induction is inference through an index (a sign by factual connection); a sample is an index of the totality from which it is drawn. H ω ), Arisbe. ⊚ Kidnapping is defined as, “The crime of unlawfully seizing and carrying away a person by force or fraud, or seizing and detaining a person against his or her will with an intent to carry that person away at a later time.” Abduction is legally defined as follows: “The act of restraining another through use or threat of force or through fraudulent persuasion. {\displaystyle b} {\displaystyle O} Bloomington, IA. {\displaystyle T} In his memoir of methodeutic, Peirce wrote: So, we now are back to the two parts of our abduction/retroduction dilemma, for we have two claims for abduction: Thus in one sense, Peirce’s notion of abduction is the aesthetic activity of musement. Note that categorical syllogisms have elements traditionally called middles, predicates, and subjects. From its position of “firstness,” the category of aesthetics (science of the ideal) provides the normative force (as feeling, energy, value, purpose, being) from which the very “law of liberty” should be obeyed–such is its “norm.” And, since abduction is the method by which qualities as potentialities are noticed, related, and formed into meaningful relationships, abduction must at least begin with the aesthetic norm–for it is the method by which the aesthetic ideal is expressed. (2010). (Peirce, 1902, MS 175.329-330). Here, considerations such as probability, absent from the treatment of abduction at the critical level, come into play. 1 ϕ Thus, the category of aesthetics as a “normative” science is (like abduction as musing) not subject to ethical norms, but rather to the norming of norms–the exploration and discovery of that which is the “ideal” (and which should therefore, as the ideal, inform both ethics and logic). Such representations could provide forms and models from which to construct and test hypotheses concerning both abduction as musement and retroduction as methodeutic. It cannot be defined operationally until we clarify some of the confusing contradictions about abductive reasoning with which Peirce left us. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. from Additionally, we might also reasonably suspect that, when taken as a whole, Peirce’s methodeutic, which is (“nothing but heuretic and concerns abduction alone”) might provide the method by which the recursive analytical process of “retroduction” can itself be tested. A proof-theoretical abduction method for first order classical logic based on the sequent calculus and a dual one, based on semantic tableaux (analytic tableaux) have been proposed. There, he provides a detailed description of how the abductive process (as musement) engages within and among the three categories (Peirce 1903/1955b, “A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic”, pp. C. S. Peirce: A Life. From this we might infer that “psychological factors” (such as “surprise,” “value,” and other modes dependent upon sense or affect) might be employable as heuristic devices for explaining abduction, while not actually belonging to abduction, to mathematics, or to any of the sciences of discovery. If modern researchers were to accept this proposed separation of Peirce¹s terminology (abduction and retroduction) to identify these different levels of concepts within his notion of abduction, we could finally begin the task of developing effective operational definitions for abduction and retroduction. Deductive reasoning and abductive reasoning thus differ in which end, left or right, of the proposition " Charles S. Peirce Selected Writings: Values in a Universe of Chance (P. Weiner, Ed.). Now, let us examine Peirce’s suggestion that abduction is the aesthetic activity of musing as this contrasts with to his assertions that: That, for Peirce, the normative sciences of aesthetics, ethics, and logic are interdependent (as are each of the three types of logical reasoning) is an important concept to keep in mind when considering the “notion of abduction.” Such interdependence is an especially important concept when reconciling abduction as musement with the recursive analytical method of retroduction. . Deduction: {\displaystyle \therefore } For examples: Applications in artificial intelligence include fault diagnosis, belief revision, and automated planning. Ketner, K. L. (1998). Peirce and the Structure of Abductive Inference. Collier Macmillan Publishers, London. Then, once these processes are mastered, individuals can learn to effectively perform and apply each of these methods appropriately for the construction, explication, and evaluation of all sorts of conditional purposes (including hypotheses)–thus mastering the skills of Peirce’s concept of “right reasoning.”. ′ Logic, in turn, consists of three categories: speculative grammar (which is the general theory of the nature of signs and their meanings), critic (which is usually considered as “formal logic”), and methodeutic (the logic of scientific method). The prefix “de” from Latin loanwords refers to separation, removal, and negation. (1994). X Deductive reasoning allows deriving Cialdea Mayer, Marta and Pirri, Fiora (1993) "First order abduction via tableau and sequent calculi" Logic Jnl IGPL 1993 1: 99–117; Cialdea Mayer, Marta and Pirri, Fiora (1995) "Propositional Abduction in Modal Logic", Logic Jnl IGPL 1995 3: 907–919; Edwards, Paul (1967, eds. Citation; Konstantakis, Palaigeorgiou, Siozos and Tsoukalas (2010) Konstantakis, N. I., Palaigeorgiou, G. E., Siozos, P. D., & Tsoukalas, I. The “first” science of discovery, according to Peirce, is mathematics–which studies “what is and is not logically possible, without making itself responsible for its actual existence”(Peirce, 1903/1955b, “A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic”, p. 60). In Peirce, C. S., 'Minute Logic' circa 1902. Consequently, the conduct of abduction, which is chiefly a question of heuristic and is the first question of heuristic, is to be governed by economical considerations. X ‖ {\displaystyle e(H')} {\displaystyle \omega _{Y{\tilde {\mid }}X}} ′ = Can there be a “norm” for what is “surprising” or not? one inverted conditional for each value ∈ {\displaystyle b} Abductive validation is common practice in hypothesis formation in science; moreover, Peirce claims that it is a ubiquitous aspect of thought: Looking out my window this lovely spring morning, I see an azalea in full bloom. Retrieved from  http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/schiller-education.html. x Induction is the reasoning method by which the idea is tested, evaluated, and eventually secured. , where Subjects. In 1996, Phyllis and her husband, Hal Leskinen, moved to Port Townsend, WA, where Phyllis is affiliated with Peninsula College. Style: Viable Construct of Thought Patterning. Aesthetics governs ethics, and ethics logic. How to cite this article . a state space of exhaustive and mutually disjoint state values One handy way of thinking of it is as "inference to the best explanation". {\displaystyle \mathbf {X} } A different formalization of abduction is based on inverting the function that calculates the visible effects of the hypotheses. Abduction or deduction is used to interpret that evaluation (or new information is produced) and the cycle begins again until a hypothesis (or “conditional purpose”) has been fully engendered and is ready for formal explication and testing. It need not even be a rule strictly necessitating the surprising observation ("C"), which needs to follow only as a "matter of course"; or the "course" itself could amount to some known rule, merely alluded to, and also not necessarily a rule of strict necessity. [Any] S is M b Reasoning and the Logic of Things. e Charles S. Peirce Selected Writings: Values in a Universe of Chance. As two stages of the development, extension, etc., of a hypothesis in scientific inquiry, abduction and also induction are often collapsed into one overarching concept — the hypothesis. It would only mean that, in addition to mathematical representations, other means “not admissible in critical logic” are available to this branch of logic for representing qualities and the relations of qualities of the normative sciences–including aesthetics, ethics, and logic. But all the same the hypothesis consists more clearly than ever in a new or outside idea beyond what is known or observed. Port Townsend, Washington: Davis-Nelson. In Robert A. Kowalski, Kenneth A. Bowen editors: Logic Programming, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference and Symposium, Seattle, Washington, August 15–19, 1988. Since the category of aesthetics fits that description, we can explore the apparent paradox of norming the apprehension of a “surprise” and the making of “guesses” by addressing the aesthetic process which Peirce called “musing.” Peirce borrowed the term “musement” from Friedrich Von Schiller’s 1794 book Letters Upon The Aesthetic Education of a Young Man (Schiller, 1794). (Fann, 1970, p. 60). Normative science rests largely on phenomenology and on mathematics; metaphysics on phenomenology and on normative science” (Peirce, 1903/1955, “A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic”, p. 61). [34] Like "Deduction, Induction, and Hypothesis" in 1878, it was widely read (see the historical books on statistics by Stephen Stigler), unlike his later amendments of his conception of abduction. [23][24] To increase the assurance of a hypothetical conclusion, one needs to deduce implications about evidence to be found, predictions which induction can test through observation so as to evaluate the hypothesis. For late in life, Peirce returned to Schiller’s aesthetic concept of musement as a heuristic device for explaining the way in which new possibilities are discovered and explored–the same process which he elsewhere refers to variously as abduction and retroduction. b Peirce, C. S. (1902). Thus, the word “retroduction” can stand as an inclusive term (overarching the three inference methods of abduction, deduction, and induction) for Peirce’s methodeutic, defining roles of all three of the processes recursively applied for the discovery and construction of worthy hypotheses (conditional purposes). Belief revision, the process of adapting beliefs in view of new information, is another field in which abduction has been applied. Yet, one cannot help wonder at Schiller’s influence upon the emergence of Peirce’s concept of abduction. {\displaystyle u_{X}\,\!} He considered his theory of abduction essential to (and even overarching of) his theory of pragmatism (Fann, 1970, p.47). = a Abduction is the answer to this conundrum because the tentative nature of the abduction concept (Peirce likened it to guessing) means that not only can it operate outside of any pre-existing framework, but moreover, it can actually intimate the existence of a framework. {\displaystyle y} {\displaystyle a} e according to theory Retrieved from http;//www.door.net/Arisbe. H However, until an operational definition of abduction (as the pattern of actions distinct from deduction and induction) is available, we cannot hope to develop an operational definition for retroduction. The term “abduction” was coined by Charles Sanders Peirce in his work on the logic of science. Menu. M {\displaystyle E} X Abduction is the process of deriving a set of explanations of Deductive reasoning allows deriving $${\displaystyle b}$$ from $${\displaystyle a}$$ only where $${\displaystyle b}$$ is a formal logical consequence of $${\displaystyle a}$$. You conclude that they are friendsagain. It can be seen as a way of generating explanations of a phenomena meeting certain conditions. ∈ ω {\displaystyle \mathbf {X} } Realists have advocated (a) retroduction, and (b) abduction as the logic of analysis arising from/with/after data creation processes. {\displaystyle a} {\displaystyle b} (Eds.) X Part one of the abduction dilemma involves reconciling the first three senses of abduction: Part two of the abduction dilemma brings up only one question here, but that question provides the strongest basis for separating the concepts of “abduction” and “retroduction.” This second part of the abduction dilemma arises from Peirce’s statement that methodeutic (which is “nothing but heuretic”) “concerns abduction alone.”. This synthesis suggesting a new conception or hypothesis, is the Abduction. Peirce tells us that each division in his classification of the sciences depends upon the one which precedes it.1. ) and "Wikipedia is a wiki" ( In 1911, he wrote, "I do not, at present, feel quite convinced that any logical form can be assigned that will cover all 'Retroductions'. [10] The methods are sound and complete and work for full first order logic, without requiring any preliminary reduction of formulae into normal forms. Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. Similarly in medical diagnosis and legal reasoning, the same methods are being used, although there have been many examples of errors, especially caused by the base rate fallacy and the prosecutor's fallacy. The phrase "inference to the best explanation" (not used by Peirce but often applied to hypothetical inference) is not always understood as referring to the most simple and natural hypotheses (such as those with the fewest assumptions). Another significant benefit would be to enable an operational definition of abductive reasoning–one which can be delineated in critical logic with the same clarity as deduction. {\displaystyle {\widetilde {\phi \,}}} For what I mean by a Retroduction is simply a conjecture which arises in the mind."[33]. Bowden, R. (2004) A critique of Alfred Gell on Art and Agency. [13] The input arguments in subjective logic are subjective opinions which can be binomial when the opinion applies to a binary variable or multinomial when it applies to an n-ary variable. Any M is probably P. Any M is, for instance, P′, P′′, P′′′, &c.; h E Bloomington, Ind. It bloweth where it listeth. In 1902, Peirce wrote that, in abduction: "It is recognized that the phenomena are like, i.e. Methodology of inquiry in its interplay of modes. Abduction or retroduction, as introduced by C.S. (1992). [8] However, in actual practice, the reasoning forms of deduction and induction are not just applied during their specific stages. There is, however, an inferential step from the explanandum to the abductive explanans . M Logical critic, or logic proper, on validity or justifiability of inference, the conditions for true representation. A technique known as bi-abduction, which mixes abduction and the frame problem, was used to scale reasoning techniques for memory properties to millions of lines of code;[58] logic-based abduction was used to infer pre-conditions for individual functions in a program, relieving the human of the need to do so. The Essential Peirce. Chiasson, P. (2001). Therefore, all three inferencing methods interact during the engendering of a hypothesis–not abduction alone. {\displaystyle O} The power of agency is the power to motivate actions and inspire ultimately the shared understanding that characterizes any given society.[57]. Based on these parameters, the subjective Bayes' theorem denoted with the operator [citation needed] Under this principle, an explanation is valid if it is the best possible explanation of a set of known data. New York: State University of New York Press,. . In an everyday scenario, you may be puzzled by a half-eaten sandwich on the kitchen counter. Peirce wrote: For methodeutic to “concern abduction alone” and still be the logic of scientific reasoning, the term “abduction” (when Peirce says that “methodeutic concerns abduction alone”) should really be termed “retroduction.” Since it is the logic of scientific method, methodeutic logic cannot possibly refer only to the noticing of an anomaly and the forming of a hunch. {\displaystyle b} In 1987, Chiasson successfully completed the design and implementation of a computer analysis program which allows trained observers to administer the Davis Non-verbal Assessment. In intelligence analysis, analysis of competing hypotheses and Bayesian networks, probabilistic abductive reasoning is used extensively. Abduction as an Aspect... My Searches (0) My Cart Added To Cart Check Out. {\displaystyle M} Thus, in the twentieth century this collapse was reinforced by Karl Popper's explication of the hypothetico-deductive model, where the hypothesis is considered to be just "a guess"[14] (in the spirit of Peirce). The pattern of actions of abductive reasoning must be known and well-tested before we can effectively identify the qualities and relations among qualities of the overarching pattern of retroductive reasoning. which takes its values from a domain Introduction to Abduction by Goremonger, released 13 February 2016 For Peirce tells us that an abductive inference cannot be in any way psychological, and is “deduced mathematically from the categories.” (Peirce, 1902, “Memoir 24”), In a fourth apparent contradiction, Peirce tells us that methodeutic, the third category of logic (and which is the logic of scientific method), is “nothing but heuretic and concerns abduction alone.” (Peirce, 1902, “Memoir 27”). It separates the theory It has no purpose, unless recreation….” Can we have a norm for a form of logic which depends upon mathematics and ethics, but “has no rules, except this very law of liberty?” Or, is the abduction of musement of another sort than the abduction of critical logic? Thus, as in the earlier categorical syllogistic form, the conclusion is formulated from some premise(s). Peirce’s Pragmatism: The Design for Thinking. He follows his description of musement with explanations of the processes and purposes of deduction and induction as well. And, in the same way, certain “practical” applications of Peirce’s methodeutic (or of any of the components of that method) could also be considered as heuristic devices representing the qualities and relations of qualities of retroduction. (1970). The Fundamental Problem of Contemporary Epistemology. Peirce consistently characterized it as the kind of inference that originates a hypothesis by concluding in an explanation, though an unassured one, for some very curious or surprising (anomalous) observation stated in a premise. include all observations The movement can occur in a plane, as with a knee flexion, or in multiple planes, such as shoulder movement. {\displaystyle {\widetilde {\|}}} ⊆ a b abduction, deduction, and induction are discussed through discriminating selection. [Neglected Argument] is the First Stage of scientific inquiry, resulting in a hypothesis of the very highest plausibility….” His “Neglected Argument,” then, is comprised of the deliberate and recursive use of abduction, deduction, and induction, for engendering “…a hypothesis of the very highest plausibility [the hypothesis of the reality of God] whose ultimate test must lie in its value in the self-controlled growth of a man’s conduct of life” (Peirce, 1908/1958, pp. Published in part in, Peirce, C.S. ( ~ (1998). Now, thinking is a species of conduct which is largely subject to self-control. ) Chiasson, P. (2001). Value: A guess is intrinsically worth testing if it has instinctual plausibility or reasoned objective probability, while, Interrelationships: Guesses can be chosen for trial strategically for their. [24] The pragmatic maxim is: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. The overarching meaning of abduction (which I have proposed that we call “retroduction”) would cover Peirce’s methodeutic and his whole of the concept of continuity as “an affair of thought.”(Peirce 1905/1955, “What Pragmatism Is”, p. 266) As such, the term “retroduction” would include: Then, the reasoner returns to abduction and repeats that cycle as necessary. Peirce’s claim for the requirement of the deliberate control of abduction, deduction, and induction (as described in “Neglected Argument”) for ultimately engendering the “hypothesis of God,” corresponds to the deliberate process of pre-and post reflection and analysis–the “backward leading” recursive analysis, which we are here defining as “retroduction.”. They provided information and suggestions to assist professionals in building more appropriate learning situations. Once a surprising fact is formed into a hunch, deduction and induction interact recursively with abduction to engender a hypothesis. But all inference from the sample to the whole is essentially inductive. .... Any hypothesis, therefore, may be admissible, in the absence of any special reasons to the contrary, provided it be capable of experimental verification, and only insofar as it is capable of such verification. Phyllis Chiasson began working with Peirce’s concepts in 1974 as a language arts teacher in Tucson, Arizona. Normative science “distinguishes what ought to be from what ought not to be…. The most direct application of abduction is that of automatically detecting faults in systems: given a theory relating faults with their effects and a set of observed effects, abduction can be used to derive sets of faults that are likely to be the cause of the problem. a {\displaystyle H'\subseteq H} We might also suspect that the deliberate form of recursive analysis (the interplay of abduction, deduction, and induction), which we are referring to as “retroduction,” might provide the qualities and relations of qualities by which the individual processes within it (abduction, deduction, and induction) can be tested. Love words? Preference models use fuzzy logic or utility models. Peirce, Carnegie application, L75 (1902), Memoir 28: "On the Economics of Research", scroll down to Draft E. Peirce, C. S., the 1866 Lowell Lectures on the Logic of Science, Peirce, C. S., "A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic", written 1903. b Abductive planning with the event calculus. Case: These beans are from this bag. ⊆ (i.e. 2.2 Revealing the multi-faceted causes of behavior is a complex aspect of research analysis that requires interpretative tools capable of unpacking the association between what people do, and the individual or structural factors encountered in their environment that shape behavioral responses. {\displaystyle T} satisfying these two conditions, some other condition of minimality is usually imposed to avoid irrelevant facts (not contributing to the entailment of The formation of systems of propositions, although it has been neglected, should also evidently be included in methodeutic. An aesthetic (unfettered) exploration of qualities and relationships is made. SPV is a sub-series of the Value Inquiry Book Series of Editions Rodopi. X ′ For example, if all swans that we have observed so far are white, we may induce that the possibility that all swans are white is reasonable. {\displaystyle E} ⋃ a How can the logic of scientific method “concern abduction alone,” if abduction is only one of three forms of logical inference? Rather, this root indicates that the outward movement of an abductive inference allows the result of such an inference to be left as a completion, or used as the sole means for further exploration of possibilities–as in the arts. ) West Layfayette, Indiana: Indiana University Press. Thus the aesthetic provides the “norm” (as the “admirable” ideal) for other norms and, as such, is the only “norm” that can be obeyed at the same time as obeying the “very law of liberty” (or “freedom of the will”). 60-62). It bloweth where it listeth. The whole series of mental performances between the notice of the wonderful phenomenon and the acceptance of the hypothesis, during which the usually docile understanding seems to hold the bit between its teeth and to have us at its mercy, the search for pertinent circumstances and the laying hold of them, the dark laboring, the bursting out of startling conjecture, the remarking of its smooth fitting to the anomaly, as it is turned back and forth like a key in a lock, and the final estimation of its Plausibility, I reckon as composing the First Stage of Inquiry (Peirce, 1908/1958, “A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God”, p. 368). are assumed to be sets of literals. Before 1900, Peirce treated abduction as the use of a known rule to explain an observation. {\displaystyle X} Thus, methodeutic concerned with “abduction alone” really means that it is concerned with “retroduction alone”–for Peirce’s methodeutic is the form of deliberate, recursive analysis which involves the interplay of abduction, deduction, and induction for the development, explication, and (at the least) preliminary testing of hypotheses. only where The hypothesis is framed, but not asserted, in a premise, then asserted as rationally suspectable in the conclusion. If abductive inferences result from the entirely unfettered process of “Pure Play,” and if “logical self-control is a perfect mirror of ethical self-control,” how can abductive inferences be made while logic is “fettered” by the standards (rules or norms) of “ethical self-control?”, By turning to Peirce’s Classification of the Sciences, we can begin to get a view of Peirce’s “big picture” concerning all of theoretical science and its sub-branch, the “science of discovery,” within which logic dwells. 0 Deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. In this sense, the term “retroduction” would be reserved as a definition for the entire abductive–deductive–inductive cycle of Peirce’s methodeutic, saving the term “abduction” to mean a distinct type of inference that is separate and distinct from either deduction or induction. H ∴ Peirce used the terms: abduction and retroduction interchangeably for two concepts–one overarching the other. 1 Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,[1] abductive inference,[1] or retroduction[2]) is a form of logical inference formulated and advanced by American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce beginning in the last third of the 19th century. ( Previous message: BHA: Abduction or Retroduction? Definition of retroduction in the Definitions.net dictionary. In this paper it is proposed that abduction may play a part in qualitative data analysis – specifically, in the identification of themes, codes, and categories. The “Second Stage” of inquiry is explication and demonstration of the hypothesis (by means of deduction) and the “Third Stage” is comprised of classification, testing, and evaluation. This remains the common use of the term "abduction" in the social sciences and in artificial intelligence. (i.e. For, Peirce said that “the whole series of mental performances between the notice of the wonderful phenomenon and the acceptance of the hypothesis…compos[es] the First Stage of Inquiry.” He did not say that merely the “noticing of an anomaly” and “the getting of a hunch” composes the First Stage of inquiry. By distinguishing between these two concepts within Peirce’s methodeutic (defining one as abduction and the other as retroduction), it becomes possible to observe and identify patterns of actions during the actual performance of each of the distinct inferencing processes (abduction, deduction, and induction). [Any] S is P. S′, S′′, S′′′, &c. are taken at random as M's; Once a hypothesis is formed, deduction is the method by which that idea is explicated and readied for testing. (Peirce, 1903/1955, A Syllabus of Certain Topics of Logic, presented as “Philosophy and the Sciences: A Classification,”, pp. (1983). In 1911, just three years before his death, Peirce wrote: Since Peirce never completed this “small book,” we cannot be entirely certain of what he exactly meant by the third of these “types of reasoning” (the other two are deduction and induction), or by his comment about “the real nature of Retroduction.” However, although he never completed the book proposed in 1911, Peirce did publish an essay in 1908 that seems to have heuristically fulfilled that goal. Therefore, the proposal that we should use the term “abduction” for the reasoning method by which conditional purposes (hypotheses) are constructed and “retroduction” as the overarching method by which theories are engendered (by the interplay of abduction, deduction, and induction) should not be taken lightly. ( constitute an Icon of, a replica of a general conception, or Symbol."[43]. And how can one obey only the “very law of liberty,” yet also be circumscribed by ethical norms (as Peirce claimed logic must be)? Instead, abduction is done at the level of the ordering of preference of the possible worlds. X Its Latin roots indicate that “retroduction” refers, not only to the apprehension of a “surprising fact,” and an ensuing hunch, but also that the hunch, once formed, is deliberately and recursively taken “backward” for analysis and adjustment (requiring deduction and induction), before it is engendered into a hypothesis worthy of extensive testing. In the forms themselves, it is understood but not explicit that induction involves random selection and that hypothetical inference involves response to a "very curious circumstance". Y e One morning you enter the kitchen to find a plate and cup on thetable, with breadcrumbs and a pat of butter on it, and surrounded by ajar of jam, a pack of sugar, and an empty carton of milk. However, he did allow for Kant¹s “aesthetic judgment,” “which is expressive, not cognitive” (Sheriff, 1994) and of which musing could be a sort. Retroduction = deliberately leading backward. E ω (1993). does not follow necessarily from Yet, the method of abduction cannot be taught until it is identified and defined in an operational sense. {\displaystyle \;{\widetilde {\phi }}} Abduction has been used in mechanized reasoning tools to increase the level of automation of the proof activity. He answers by saying that "No reasonable person could suppose that art-like relations between people and things do not involve at least some form of semiosis. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Even a well-prepared mind guesses oftener wrong than right, but our guesses succeed better than random luck at reaching the truth or at least advancing the inquiry, and that indicates to Peirce that they are based in instinctive attunement to nature, an affinity between the mind's processes and the processes of the real, which would account for why appealingly "natural" guesses are the ones that oftenest (or least seldom) succeed; to which Peirce added the argument that such guesses are to be preferred since, without "a natural bent like nature's", people would have no hope of understanding nature. In “Neglected Argument,” Peirce emphasizes that “musement” (the state from which an abductive inference is generated) must be an entirely unfettered process–following only the laws of “Pure Play.” “Now Play, as we all know,” wrote Peirce, “is a lively exercise of one’s powers. ), and the base rate distribution Abduction: Therefore, according to this category, there is no “method” associated with the aesthetic ideal. is the base rate distribution over Because the two parts of the abduction/retroduction dilemma are so intertwined, we will not be dealing with them separately as “part one” and “part two.” Instead, we will examine together clues and contradictions which point up these two parts of the dilemma, and which will lead us to the basis for rescuing the terms “abduction” and “retroduction” from their mistaken synonymy and place them into service appropriately. But among justifiable hypotheses we have to select that one which is suitable for being tested by experiment. Given the truth of the assumptions, a valid deduction guarantees the truth of the conclusion. Philosophical Writings of Peirce (J. Buchler, Ed.). ‖ Not the smallest advance can be made in knowledge beyond the stage of vacant staring, without making an abduction at every step.[11]. Strands of System: The Philosophy of Charles Peirce. {\displaystyle X} as an explanation of At the critical level Peirce examined the forms of abductive arguments (as discussed above), and came to hold that the hypothesis should economize explanation for plausibility in terms of the feasible and natural. S′, S′′, S′′′, &c. are P: Perhaps from this larger view, we can see how his concepts of abduction/retroduction should fit in. ) Have you ever wondered what a concise, comprehensive book providing critical guidance to the whole expanse of social science research methods and issues migh a After making this thorough description of the roles and processes of abduction as musement (as well as of deduction and induction), Peirce paradoxically claims that these three inferencing methods interact to engender a hypothesis (in this case, for “the Reality of God”, Peirce, 1908/1958, pp. “Logical self-control is a perfect mirror of ethical self-control….”, “Pure Play [from which abductive inferences may result] has no rules, except the very law of liberty.”, first, that it is not psychological because “no such doctrine can be admitted into critical logic,” and, second, that methodeutic logic (which is the logic of scientific method) is nothing but heuretic; that it concerns abduction alone; and that this form of logic may resort “to certain methods not admissible in” speculative grammar or critical logic. The midline is an imaginary line that runs fro… 374-375). In all their features (which there is no room to describe here), logical self-control is a perfect mirror of ethical self-control–unless it be a species under that genus. (ed.) H A particular individual may use the same reasoning method for all three of these activities, or a different method for each.) ) Before Peirce’s methods of right reasoning can be taught, however, abductive reasoning must have an effective operational definition–one that can be demonstrated and generally understood, so that all of the reasoning methods can be effectively taught and, more importantly, mastered. Abduction is then the process that picks out some member of