The Isagoge (Greek: Εἰσαγωγή, Eisagōgḗ) or "Introduction" to Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry in Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium after his death. The Isagoge was composed by Porphyry in Sicily during the years 268-270, and sent to Chrysaorium, according to all the ancient commentators Ammonius, Elias, and David. Many writers, such as Boethius himself, Averroes, Abelard, Scotus, wrote commentaries on the book. The Armenian version of David the Invincible’s Commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, although extremely literal, is shorter by a quarter than the Greek original and contains revised passages. |620 for neither is genus more and less predicated of that of which it is the genus, nor the differences of genus according to which it is divided. those of genus, with respect to the rest. For animal being subverted, rational and irrational are co-subverted, but differences no longer co-subvert genus, for even if all of them should be subverted, yet we may form a conception of animated, sensible substance, which is animal. 12. Universally then every difference acceding to a thing renders it different, but differences common and proper render it different in quality, and the most proper render it another thing. |623 become grey in old age: in the fourth place, it is that in which it concurs (to happen) to one species alone, and to every (individual of it), and always, as risibility to a man; for though he does not always laugh, yet he is said to be risible, not from his always laughing, but from being naturally adapted to laugh, and this is always inherent in him, in the same way as neighing in a horse. 9. We have shown then, wherein genus differs from the other four, but each of the other four happens also to differ from the rest, so that as there are five, and each one of the four differs from the rest, the five being four times (taken), all the differences would appear to be twenty. Huyshe. Moreover, because it is predicated in reply to what a thing is, it is distinguished from differences and from accidents commonly, which are severally predicated of what they are predicated, not in reply to what a thing is, but what kind of a thing it is, or in what manner it subsists: the description therefore of the conception of genus, which has been enunciated, contains nothing superfluous, nothing deficient.8, Species indeed is predicated of every form, according to which it is said, "form is first worthy of imperial sway;"9 still that is called species also, which is under the genus stated, according to which we are accustomed to call man a species of animal, animal being genus, but white a species of colour, and triangle of figure. There is no warranty, as we have observed, by Porphyry, for distinction between "quale quid" and "quale.". Again, species subsists prior to property, but property accedes to species, for man must exist, in order that risible may: besides, species is always present in energy with its subject, but property sometimes also in capacity, for Socrates is a man always in energy, but he does not always laugh, though he is always naturally adapted to be risible. Now genus is such as "animal," species as "man," difference as " rational," property as " risible," accident as "white," "black," "to sit." 2 Dialectic, according to Plato, consists of four parts, division, definition, demonstration, and analysis; hence a treatise adapted to the formation of these, will be evidently useful to the dialectic of Plato. Chap. They also co-subvert, but are not co-subverted, for species existing, genus also entirely exists, but genus existing there is not altogether species; genera too, are indeed univocally predicated of species under them, but not species of genera. For instance, I shall ch. Again, of the inseparable, some exist per se, others by accident, for rational, mortal, to be susceptible of science, are inherent in man per se, but to have a crooked or flat nose, accidentally, and not per se. |632 which the definitions are different, are themselves also different, but it is (the definition) of species to be under genus, and to be predicated of many things, also differing in number, in respect to what a thing is, and things of this kind, but of property it is to be present to a thing alone, and to every individual and always. Genus also is similar to matter, but difference to form: however since there are other things common and peculiar to genus and difference, these will suffice. The Armenian version of David the Invincible's Commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge, although extremely literal, is shorter by a quarter than the Greek original and contains revised passages. Moreover, genus comprehends difference in capacity, for of animal one kind is rational, but another irrational, but differences do not comprehend genera. To install click the Add extension button. Still, this signification appears to be most ready,7 for they are called Heraclidae who derive their origin from the genus of Hercules, and Cecropidae who are from Cecrops; also their next of kin. --Of Community and Difference of Species and Accident. 18 and 21, note; Whately, p. 52, 138; Outline of Laws of Thought, p. 44; Stewart, Philo. As philosophers reduced all things under ten common natures, as grammarians also, with respect to eight words, so Porphyry has comprehended every significant word, except such as are significant of individuals, under five terms. 2. Tract, vi. Again, of species the participation is equal, but of accident, even if it be inseparable, it is not equal; for an Ethiopian may have a colour intense, or remitted, according to blackness, with reference to an(other) Ethiopian. Jahrhundert verfasste. LA) Porphyrii Isagoge translatio, in Corpus scriptorum latinorum. An infima species implies a notion so complex as to be incapable of further accessions, the Realist maintains it to be the whole essence of the individuals of which it is predicated. Preface to the online edition", "Porphyry, Introduction (or Isagoge) to the logical Categories of Aristotle. The first genus, moreover, is so called, which is the principle of each man's generation, but afterwards the number of those who are from one principle, e. g. from Hercules, which defining and separating from others, we call the whole collected multitude the genus of the Heraclidse. The reading is that of Julius Pacius, whom all later editors have followed: the Latin interpretation renders it, "accidentis vero in eo, quod quale quiddam, vel quomodo se habens.". Substance indeed, is itself genus, under this is body, under body animated body, under which is animal, under animal rational animal, under which is man, under man Socrates, Plato, and men particularly. 20 are rational, but the addition of mortal separates us from them. 2 Cf. He adds also, that the difference is not always one quality, but is frequently compounded of several together, no one of which would alone suffice." 5. 1 An infima species can be maintained by none consistently but a Realist. ἄγγελοι Commonly the word Proclus. |615 them, according to which they are said to be their genera. Wallis, ch. With the Arabicized name Isāghūjī it long remained the standard introductory logic text in the Muslim world and influenced the study of theology, philosophy, grammar, and jurisprudence. Chap. In what respect species differs from genus and difference, was explained in our enunciation of the way in which genus, and also difference, differ from the rest; it now remains that we should point out how it (species) differs from property and accident. 1 On the metaphysical part of this question, the opinions of philosophers are as vague as (I may add) they are unprofitable, hence the term "universals," is the best to be employed, as least liable to commit the logician to any metaphysical hypothesis; since the realist may interpret it of "substances," the nominalist of "names," the conceptualist of "notions." |626. |610 omit to speak about genera and species, as to whether they subsist (in the nature of things) or in mere conceptions only; whether also if subsistent, they are bodies or incorporeal, and whether they are separate from, or in, sensibles,3 and subsist about these,4 for such a treatise is most profound, and requires another more extensive investigation.5 Nevertheless, how the ancients, and especially the Peripatetics, discussed these and the other proposed subjects, in a more logical manner, I will now endeavour to point out to you. p. 143, ch, 4; Waitz, vol. 2. θεοὶ. ch. Cf. Occam Logica. |627 besides, neither can species become most generic, nor genus most specific. Besides property is reciprocally predicated of that of which it is the property, but genus is not reciprocally predicated of any thing, for neither if any thing is an animal, is it a man, nor if a thing be animal is it risible, but if any thing is a man it is risible, and vice versa. Wherefore the individual is comprehended in the species, but the species by the genus, for genus is a certain whole, but the individual is a part, and Vide Mansel, p. 21, 11. Though he did not mention the problem further, his formulation constitutes the most influential part of his work, since it was these questions that formed the basis of medieval debates about the status of universals. Difference. Note that only selected footnotes are included and no As then, substance being in the highest place, is most generic, from there being no genus prior to it, so also man being a species, after which there is no other species, nor any thing capable of division into species, but individuals, (for Socrates, Plato, Alcibiades, and this white thing, I call individual,) will be species alone, and the last species, and as we say the most specific. It receives a two-fold division, for one kind of it is separable, but the other inseparable, e. g. to sleep is a separable accident, but to be black happens inseparably to a crow and an Ethiopian; we may possibly indeed conceive a white crow, and an Ethiopian casting his colour, without destruction of the subject. What remains then, viz. porphyry isagoge. --Object of the writer, in the present Introduction. Isagoge Book 1975 WorldCat. 1 Porphyry's definition of man, "animal rationale mortale," was adopted by Abelard, Albertus Magnus, and Petrus Hispanus, though sometimes with the saving clause, that it must be understood with reference to the Stoical notions of the gods. XV. The difference between the dialectic of Plato and that of Aristotle, is noticed in the subsequent notes upon the Organon, and the reader will find the subject ably discussed in the introduction to Mansel's Logic; here we need only observe that Aristotle in the Topics, looks to opinion (in his treatment of dialectic), while Plato disregards it, and the former delivers many arguments about one problem, but the latter, the same method about many problems. The earliest known Syriac translation was made in the seventh century by Athanasius of Balad. Cf. Moreover, property is inherent in the whole species, of which it is the property, in it alone, and always, but genus in the whole species indeed of which it is the genus, and always, yet not in it alone; once more, properties being subverted do not co-subvert genera, but genera being subverted, co-subvert species, to which properties belong; wherefore, also those things of which there are properties, being subverted, the properties themselves also, are co-subverted. Rector of Burstow, Surrey; and Domestic Chaplain to the Duke of When however we are asked what man is, we answer, an animal, but animal is the genus of man, so that from genus being predicated of many, it is diverse from individuals which are predicated of one thing only, but from being predicated of things different in species, it is distinguished from such as are predicated as species or as properties. 1 At the request of Chrysaorius, his pupil, who had recently met with the Categories of Aristotle, Porphyry wrote this introduction, in order to his comprehension of that treatise: nearly the whole of it is composed from the writings, and often almost in the very words of Plato. Summa, p. 1; Qu. 2. pp.609-633. For to be naturally adapted to sail is not the difference, though it is the property of man, since we may say that of animals, some are naturally adapted to sail, but others not, separating man from other animals; yet a natural ability to sail does not complete the essence, neither is a part of it, but only an aptitude of it, because it is not such a difference as those which are called specific differences. Philoponus, in his extracts from Ammonius, illustrates this as follows: Let a seal-ring be conceived, having the image of Achilles upon it, from which seal let there be many impressions taken in pieces of wax, afterwards let a man perceiving the pieces of wax to have all the impression of one seal, retain such impression in his mind: then the seal in the ring is said to be prior to the many; the impression in the wax to be in the many, and the image remaining in the conception of the spectator, after the many, and of posterior origin. Nevertheless, such is not the case, but always those successive being enumerated, and two being deficient by one difference, from having been already assumed, and the three by two differences, the four by three, the five by four; all the differences are ten, namely, four, three, two, one. In medieval textbooks, the all-important Arbor porphyriana ("Porphyrian Tree") illustrates his logical classification of substance. 23. --Of Community and Difference of Species and Property. Trac. 4, Isagog. Cf. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. 1 See notes to pp. Sie hatte bedeutenden Einfluss auf die Philosophie des Mittelalters URL consultato il 3 maggio 2008. Chap. i. ch. 6 and 8, Categor. Chap. isagogic, isagogical Chap. IX.--Of Community and Difference of Genus and Property. XIII.-- Of Community and Difference of Property and Difference. For of predicates some are predicated of one thing alone, as individuals, for instance, "Socrates," and "this man," and "this thing;" but others are predicated of many, as genera, species, differences, properties, and accidents, predicated in common, but not peculiarly to any one. Oxford. Isagoge Download eBook pdf epub tuebl mobi. logical treatises of Aristotle, with the introduction of Porphyry, published Porphyry philosopher. the one renders it another thing, but the other only of another quality.16. Again, they give it in this way: difference is that by which each singular thing differs, for man and horse do not differ as to genus, for both we and horses are animals, but the addition of rational separates us from them; again, both we and the gods Besides, difference indeed docs not admit of intension and remission, but accidents accept the more and less; moreover contrary differences cannot be mingled, but contrary accidents may sometimes be mingled. Sophroniscus, if Socrates alone is his son, and such things are called individuals, because each consists of properties of which the combination can never be the same in any other, for the properties of Socrates can never be the same in any other particular person;15 the properties of man indeed, (I mean of him as common,) may be the same in many, or rather in all particular men, so far as they are men. The definition here given of difference, as to its being the excess of species over genus, is clear, from a reference to what was stated in the last note of the preceding chapter. Albert de Predicab. Genus and species possess in common, (as we have said,) the being predicated of many things, but species must be taken as species only, and not as genus, if the same thing be both species and genus. p. 1, Albertus Magnus, Abelard. 3 Viz. definitions given of them. It is common then to difference and species to be equally participated, for particular men partake equally of man, and of the difference of rational. [Note to the online text: vol. Wherefore, as four differences of genus with respect to the rest, are assumed, but three of difference, two of species, and one of property with regard to accident, there will be ten (differences altogether), of which, four we have already demonstrated, viz. Nevertheless, they differ, in that property is present to one species alone, as the being risible to man, but inseparable accident, as black, is present not only to an Ethiopian, but also to a crow, to a coal, to ebony, and to certain other things. to other pages in the book or refers to long obsolete texts on logic it has been ch. Having discussed all that were proposed, I mean, genus, species, difference, property, accident, we must declare what things are common, and what peculiar to them. XIV.--Of Community and Difference of Accident and Difference. The Isagoge (Greek: Εἰσαγωγή, Eisagōgḗ) or "Introduction" to Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry in Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium after his death. species |618 both a whole and a part; part indeed of something else, but a whole not of another, but in other things, for the whole is in its parts. Growth is the generic property of living body, Upon the subject generally, the reader may compare Albertus Magnus de Praedicab. was substituted here, probably, as Casaubon conjectures, from the emendation of some Christian: Ammonius and Boethius (Comment, v.) attest that Porphyry wrote If in reality, are they physical things, or not? 27. 1 The property of a subaltern genus is predicated of all the species comprehended in that genus; that of a lowest species is predicated of all the individuals which partake of the nature of that species: thus, "Shape is the generic property of body, Isagoge (altgriechisch εἰσαγωγή, eisagogé „Einführung“) ist der Titel mehrerer antiker, mittelalterlicher und frühneuzeitlicher Schriften. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! Preface to the online edition", MS 484/15 Commentum super libro Porphyrii Isagoge; De decim predicamentis at OPenn. 1. c. Occam, pt. The five heads of predicables therefore, taken from this Isagoge, which was written in the third century, are an addition to the Aristotelian Logic, in part of which, (the Topics,) the doctrine laid down differs from that enunciated here, in several points, as Porphyry's view also differs from that of Aldrich. VII.--Of the Community and Distinction of Genus and Difference. Since then, there are three species of difference considered, some indeed separable, but others inseparable, again, of the inseparable, some are per se, but others accidental, moreover of differences per se, some are those according to which we divide genera into species, but others according to which the things divided become specific:--thus of all such differences per se of animal as these, animated and sensitive, rational and irrational, mortal and. 7. commentary on the Parmenides, Philip., Schol. |616 also belonging to the name: there are then ten most generic genera. 15. For it is necessary that either equals should be predicated of equals, as neighing of a horse, or that the greater should be predicated of the less, as animal of man, but the less no longer of the greater, for you can no longer say that animal is man, as you can say that man is animal. Besides, accidents primarily subsist about individuals, but genera and species are by nature prior to individual substances. 3; Opusc. To species and accident it is common to be predicated of many, but other points of community are rare, from the circumstance of accident, and that to which it is accidental, differing very much from each other. ii. Chap. On the other hand, the most specific they place in a certain number, yet not in an infinite one, but individuals which are after the most specific are infinite; wherefore, when we have come down to the most specific from the most generic, Plato exhorts us to rest,12 but to descend through those things which are in the middle, dividing by specific differences; he tells us however to leave infinites alone, as there cannot be science of these. The Isagoge or "Introduction" to Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry in Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium after his death. 1, Metap. Concerning genus then, and species, we have shown what is the most generic, and the most specific, also what the same things are genera and species, what also are individuals, and in how many ways genus and species are taken. lib. in what respect it differs from species, property, and accident, shall be told, and three (differences) arise. κλίμαξ,) given at page 7, ch. 25. To difference and accident it is common to be predicated of many things, but it is common (to the former) with inseparable accidents to be 1 According to Porphyry, difference is always predicated "de specie differentibus," and he recognises only a relative difference between two given species; thus "rational" is not the difference of man per se, but of man as distinguished from brutes. These indeed are especially useful for divisions of genera, and for definitions, yet not with regard to those which are inseparable accidentally, nor still more with such as are separable.18 And indeed defining these, they say that difference is that by which species exceeds genus, e. g. man exceeds animal in being rational and mortal, for animal is neither any one of these, (since whence would species have differences?) Buhle; so Aldrich. It was composed by Porphyry in Sicily during the years 268-270, and sent to Chrysaorium, according to all the ancient commentators Ammonius, Elias, and David. 28. --Of Community and Difference of Genus and Property. This he applies to genus and species. 3, Cat. Again, one thing is said to differ properly from another, when one differs from another by an inseparable accident; but an inseparable accident is such as blueness, or crookedness, or a scar become scirrhous from a wound. 4 Accidents may be distinguished from properties by the very If physical, do they have a separate existence from physical bodies, or are they part of them? The Isagoge or “Introduction” to Aristotle’s Categories (text) was a the standard textbook on logic for more than a thousand years after his death. The Isagoge or “Introduction” to Aristotle’s Categories (text) was a the standard textbook on logic for more than a … overwhelm most translators, but since much of the material is either references 1 Porphyry does not recognise the distinction between "quale quid" and "quale," (cf. Once more, things of Boethius' Isagoge, a Latin translation of Porphyry's "Introduction", became a standard medieval textbook in European schools and universities, which set the stage for medieval philosophical-theological developments of logic and the problem of universals. IX. From such things then, as are predicated of one thing only, genera differ in that they are predicated of many, but on the other hand, from those which are predicated of many and from species, (they differ) because those species are predicated of many things, yet not of those which differ in species, but in number only, for man being a species, is predicated of Socrates and Plato, who do not differ from each other in species, but in number, while animal being a genus is predicated of man, and ox, and horse, which differ also in species from each other, and not in number only. isagoge (plural isagoges) An introduction, especially (particularly capitalized) Porphyry's introduction to the works of Aristotle. Species however, as man, is predicated of particulars alone, but property both of the species, of which it is the property, and of the individuals under that species; as risibility both of man, and of particular men, but blackness of the species of crows, and of particulars, being an inseparable accident; and to be moved, of man and horse, being a separable accident. Genus however differs from accident, in that genus is prior, but accident posterior to species, for though an inseparable accident be assumed, yet that of which it is the accident is prior to the accident. xlviii. 21. According then, to the differences which produce another thing do the divisions of genera into species arise, and the definitions arising from genus and such differences are assigned. Chap. Again, in another way that is denominated genus to which the species is subject, called perhaps from the similitude of these; for such a genus is a certain principle of things under it, and seems also to comprehend all the multitude under itself. (and makes a species of animal,) but difference of being moved makes it different in quality only from what is at rest, so that Difference also and property have it in common to be equally shared by their participants, for rational are equally rational, and risible (equally) risible (animals). Cousin,) but makes difference, property, and accident to be all predicated Risibility, the specific property of man.". They assign, therefore, species thus: species is what is arranged under genus, and of which genus is predicated in reply to what a thing is: moreover, thus species is what is predicated of many things differing in number, in reply to what a thing is.