Archimedes was the one who supposedly made Greek fire with mirrors. There is no single chemical reaction for this formula because the ratios and composition can vary so greatly. Potassium Nitrate provides the oxygen. var months = new Array(12); Giancarlo Barbera is a senior at Billings Senior High School. months[6] = " The Siteseen network is dedicated to producing unique, informative websites on a whole host of educational subjects. Flammable liquids had been used in both Greek and Roman warfarebut nothing had ever been devised that was quite as lethal as Greek Fire. Trevor was watching a recorded episode of Myth Busters about Archimedes "solar death ray". This was probably sourced from the Crimea. Quicklime - Quicklime also known as calcium oxide (white, caustic, lumpy powder ) Saltpeter - Saltpeter aka Sodium nitrate is a type of salt which has long been used as an ingredient in explosives Bitumen - Asphalt and tar are the most common forms of bitumen. Therefore, I chose Greek Fire as my experimental subject. The employment of incendiary materials in war is of ancient origin; many writers of antiquity refer to flaming arrows, firepots, and such substances as pitch, naphtha, sulfur, and charcoal. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Description of Greek FireThe weapons used during the Middle Ages include the Greek Fire. Greek fire (also called Byzantine fire, wildfire and liquid fire, Greek Υγρό Πυρ, igró pir) was a weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, said to have been invented by a Syrian Christian refugee named Kallinikos (Callinicus) of Heliopolis (Syria), probably about 673. Like the formulas, explaining the chemical reactions taking place requires three separate explanations; one for each theory. 30 C8H18 + 160 NH4NO3 → 160 N2 + 59 H20 + 240 CO2. The products are Potassium Sulfate, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen gas. There have been several recipes for Greek fire throughout the ages and some people claim that the true recipe has been lost. months[10] = " A vast range of highly informative and dependable articles have been produced by the Siteseen network of entertaining and educational websites. Most importantly, he discovered how to make it inextinguishable by water. The fuel is provided by hydrocarbons such as Octane in the above reaction. Despite this almost exclusive focus, however, Greek fire is best understood as a complete weapon system of many components, all … He thinks the key ingredients were a highly flammable light crude oil called naphtha, and pine resin, which is sticky and would have made the mixture burn hotter and longer. As Constantine Porphyrogennetos' warnings show, the ingredients and the processes of manufacture and deployment of Greek fire were carefully guarded military secrets. The second was made by reflecting light off many polished shields (metal) or mirrors. Preheat a large, nonstick skillet over medium-high heat with 3 tablespoons of EVOO, 3 turns of the pan. Byzantine ships were coated in a mixture of vinegar, alum and talc to be fire resistant since the mixture did not differentiate between the Greek ships and their enemies. Known as horiatiki, this traditional Greek salad is made with cherry tomatoes, cucumber, kalamata olives, thinly sliced red onion, and feta. However, the job each chemical performs is the same every time. There were two types of Greek fire. The devastation caused by the use of Greek Fire is well illustrated in the above fascinating description and first hand history of Greek Fire by John, Lord of Joinville. months[4] = " Explore the interesting, and fascinating selection of unique websites created and produced by the Siteseen network. months[7] = " This website is produced by the Siteseen network that specializes in producing free informative websites on a diverse range of topics. Please be advised that the content, sources and writing conventions are the work of the students and have not been verified*, Find more school science projects, experiments, lesson plans and demonstrations at, The Chemistry of a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), The Chemistry of Airborne Effervescent Tablets, The Chemistry of Burt's Beeswax Chapstick, The Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, The Chemistry of Computer Part Gold Recovery, The Chemistry of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), The Chemistry of How Movies Manipulate our Emotions, The Chemistry of How Processed Foods Affect the Body, The Chemistry of how Snowboarding Affects the Brain, The Chemistry of Hydrophobic Sand (Magic Sand), The Chemistry of Metal Casting and Refining, The Chemistry of Methylenedioxyphenethylamine (MDMA), The Chemistry of Plastic Bottles (PET, HDPE, LDPE), The Chemistry of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), The Chemistry of Technical Swimming Suits, The Chemistry of the Growth of Deer Antlers. *All content and webpages on this website were created by High School students. Although the stuff had been invented long before him, it was probably Kallinkos who perfected the mixture and discovered how to effectively weaponize it. To this day, no one knows exactly how Greek Fire was made, although some of Kallinikos’s partially-complete notes have been found. It’s super easy to make, just blitz the ingredients together in a food processor. Greek fire was a very dangerous weapon for the mortals that used it, and for the enemies. Sulfur and Carbon are fuels. Once you see the first waft of smoke rising … 10KNO3 + 8S+ 3C → 2KCO3 + 3K2SO4 + 6CO2 + 5N2. Check out the Siteseen network of educational websites. "; Throwing water alone on Greek Fire only fanned the flames. I was wondering what to do with a whole chicken that I had thawing. Cook until cheese begins to ooze and a golden brown crust … It was essentially a precursor to modern napalm. Because of its effectiveness, similar fire-based weapons used by other empires alluded to Greek fire. "; Greek Fire is one of the Skills in MMO Game Atlas. The use of the trebuchet and Greek Fire was featured in the 2003 movie Timeline, based on the book by Michael Crichton. One of the reasons for this success was a naval superweapon perfected by the Greek architect, engineer, alchemist, and inventor Kallinikos. When the crusaders took the city in 1200's the few individuals able to make greek fire were killed and the secret was lost. This is the recipe from a source that claims it was not lost. He is fascinated by weaponry in all its forms, even though he is not a violent person. Some form of bitumen, such as tar or asphalt, was likely used as a base. This decadent cheesy appetizer is easy to make, fun to serve, and sure to impress. My opinion and advice therefor is: that every time they hurl the fire at us, we go down on our elbows and knees, and beseech Our Lord to save us from this danger. months[5] = " Uncover a wealth of facts and information on a variety of subjects produced by the Siteseen network. The original formula is lost, but Mayor, New Intro, 2 ancient historians tell us that the ingredients included opium and chopped vipers. Kasseri is a Greek … That in turn made me think about "Greek Fire". He also enjoys Debate. A delicious Greek bifteki (burgers) recipe topped with spicy feta cheese and a deliciously juicy grilled tomato! Grilling brings out the rich flavors in Stonefire® Naan to make a tasty simple Greek style flatbread meal. The exact recipe was such a closely guarded secret that it disappeared forever with the fall of Constantinople in 1453. I might not have ever been born, so I guess it’s pretty important to me. A pity, would have come in handy during the siege of 1453. Greek fire was a liquid that ignited on contact with water. Pine rosin is would have been added as a thickener, but it does not affect the reaction besides being an additional fuel. Enjoy this gooey, buttery melted cheese dish right from the skillet with plenty of toasted bread. Greek Fire was the secret weapon of the Eastern Roman Emperors. It was projected from the bow of a ship in a special tube called a siphon. The first one was a mixture of chemicals. There were various formula for creating Greek Fire. Little is known about Greek Fire because it was such a closely guarded secret; eventually the Byzantine Empire realised no one remembered how to make it! He is a martial artist with training in Krav Maga, Pencak Silat, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu, and Combat Hapkido. No one knows the exact composition and there are conflicting accounts as to its properties. "; Carefully place the floured cheese in the hot oil. The first one was a mixture of chemicals. Greek Fire Recipe / Formula / IngredientsGreek Fire was such a devastating weapon that the exact composition of a Greek Fire Recipe was a closely guarded secret. Such a bright light did it cast, that one could see all over the camp as though it were day, by reason of the great mass of fire, and the brilliance of the light that it shed.�His companion, Lord Walter of Cureil wrote: "Sirs, we are in the greatest peril that we have ever yet been in. It looked like a dragon flying through the air. Some accounts of Greek Fire suggest that petroleum and oil was used as an ingredient. Soon after, the Byzantine Empire collapsed since its formerly invincible Navy lost their most potent weapon. In warfare, Greek Fire turned out to be just as effective from a morale standpoint as it was tactically. months[3] = " Locate all of the popular, fast and interesting websites uniquely created and produced by the Siteseen network. There were two types of Greek fire. In later centuries saltpetre and turpentine made their appearance, and the resulting flammable mixtures were known to the Crusaders as Greek fire or wild fire. Greek FireEach section of Middle Ages Weapons provides interesting facts and information about Medieval warfare in addition to the use of Greek Fire. Although sulfur, pine resin, and petrol have been proposed as the ingredients used in Greek fire, the true formula is nearly impossible to confirm. Since it burned on water, the Byzantines’ enemies were terrified of the mixture. Many of these ingredients are used in contemporary explosives, testifying to their power, and they would have been available and known to at least a limited section of humanity during this period in history. This movie depicted the making of Greek Fire and how it was used, to devastating effect, during  siege warfare between the English and the French. Greek Fire Roasted Chicken recipe: Recipe inspirations come from the weirdest places. Due to some inconsistencies in the notes, as well as conflicting accounts on its method of delivery, there are three conflicting theories on the composition. (lime … Background Research. Greek Fire is available for players to unlock within the Artillery discipline skill tree.. About Greek Fire "Gives access to crafting the Greek Fire Ammunition for the Swivel Gun." Perfect for outdoor grilling season, this grilled naan pizza recipe is bursting with the fresh flavors of tomatoes and tangy feta cheese. The precise components of the liquid were a closely-guarded secret and the formula has long been lost but a light petroleum or naphtha is one known and vital ingredient, probably acquired from the Crimea region… Please note that nutrition details may vary based on methods of preparation, origin and freshness of ingredients used. ), splashed in fried rice, or drizzled on a salad with good olive oil. The water and Greek fire would mix when the pot smashed and would combust. First Hand History of Greek FireThe Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville provides a fascinating description of Greek Fire. The Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts provided about the fascinating subject of the Medieval period of the Middle Ages! Though with the cannons breaking the great walls the turks probably … That in turn made me think about "Greek Fire". However, they all have one thing in common: Combustion. Since there are three different theories regarding the composition of Greek Fire, it is necessary to test all three of them and list their compositions as well. Although the exact recipe was a closely guarded secret light petroleum or naphtha are known to be one of the main ingredients. months[1] = " Learning made easy with the various learning techniques and proven teaching methods used by the Siteseen network. * Nutrition information is estimated based on the ingredients and cooking instructions as described in each recipe and is intended to be used for informational purposes only. Scientists have attempted and unsuccessfully tried replicating the recipe; however, some scientists believe the original recipe included ingredients such as petroleum, quicklime, sulfur, and niter. No one, to date, has been able to successfully recreate the exact composition. Also, I’ve always wanted to make an incendiary weapon but stay safe at the same time. "; The stuff could also be used as type of early grenade. Briam is a traditional Greek roasted vegetable dish with potatoes, zucchini, tomatoes, and red onions with lots of olive oil. History of Greek FireThe history of Greek Fire is believed to date back to the 7th century and invented by a Byzantine engineer called Kallinikos (or Callinicus). While you won’t be seeing any Greek fire being used for a while, you can see modern technology which were inspired by it suc Composition probably included a mixture of quicklime, saltpeter, naphtha, sulfur, resin, and pitch, and calcium phosphide. Sealed ceramic pots filled with Greek fire on one side and water in a separate compartment and thrown at enemies. Although the Western Roman Empire had collapsed centuries earlier, the Eastern half, more commonly known as the Byzantine Empire, continued to thrive from the city of Constantinople. "; So while the mixture doesn’t directly affect my life at the moment, history may have taken a very different course if Kallinikos had never invented it. In our own time, beset by threats of biological warfare and terrorism, Mithridates’ dream of achieving immunity to toxic weapons … I was wondering what to do with a whole chicken that I had thawing. "; Again, the heat source can vary. "; months[11] = "The diverse range of websites produced by the Siteseen Network have been produced to help you conduct research on many topics of interest. The development of Greek fire is probably closely related to alchemy, the ancient precursor to chemistry. 5.7% Hydrocarbons- Various formulas, all composed of only Hydrogen and Carbon. Rainbow Fire Safety Information . So strict was the secrecy that the composition of Greek fire was lost forever and remains a source of speculation. For, if they set fire to our turrets and shelters, we are lost and burnt; and if, again, we desert our defences which have been entrusted to us, we are disgraced; so none can deliver us from this peril save God alone. Fire caused havoc in a besieged castle or city and a variety of fire missiles were thrown from a trebuchet - none more terrifying than Greek Fire. Jul 20, 2013 - Spicy Feta Spread When it comes to semi-fast food restaurants, Daphne's Greek Cafe was one of my favorites. Composition probably included a mixture of quicklime, saltpeter, naphtha, sulfur, resin, and pitch, and calcium phosphide. "; The "Greek Fire" Skill, found within the Artillery Discipline, is useful for players looking to: Greek Fire Effects & Bonuses Known as Greek Fire, Sea Fire, Liquid Fire, and various other names, the recipe was such as closely guarded secret of the Empire that eventually the Byzantines realized that no one remembered how to make it. Other Greek Fire recipe or formula which seems far more likely include a combination, or composition of ingredients such as Quicklime, Saltpeter, Bitumen, Sulphur, Resin and Pitch. Colloquially known as “Fire,” Combustion is the underlying process in all of the different formulas. Greek Fire had the property of developing intense heat, spreading in all directions and burning on water! The invention of Greek Fire gave the besieged city of Constantinople hope against the invading Arab forces. The fuels are the hydrocarbons and the sulfur. "; It is a typical example of Greek cuisine where a few simple ingredients are turned into an utterly delicious dish with little effort. In fact, Kallinikos’s mixture produced flames that grew when exposed to dihydrogen monoxide. Ammonium Nitrate acts as an oxidizer. "; This mysterious weapon could not be extinguished with water and … The second was made by reflecting light off many polished shields (metal) or mirr… It was first used against the Arabs at the siege of Constantinople of 673. the tail of fire that trailed behind it was as big as a great spear; and it made such a noise as it came, that it sounded like the thunder of heaven. months[9] = " Looking for accurate facts and impartial information? Some people, prefer their burgers neat, but Greeks enhance the flavor of their burgers (bifteki) with fresh herbs, like oregano, spearmint and parsley giving them a unique taste. A deadly missile used in the Middle Ages ( Medieval period ) projected bya siege weapon, such as the Trebuchet. Trevor was watching a recorded episode of Myth Busters about Archimedes "solar death ray". months[8] = " Get fast, free facts and information on a whole host of subjects in the Siteseen network of interesting websites. Some theories for the composition of Greek fire include ingredients like petroleum, which was known to people during this period, along with naptha, quicklime, sulfur, niter, and saltpeter. Do not add fuel to the fire while it is still burning. The Greek Fire recipe for Greek fire included the following ingredients which are defined as follows: Quicklime - Quicklime also known as calcium oxide (white, caustic, lumpy powder ) Saltpeter - Saltpeter aka Sodium nitrate is a type of salt which has long … Consequently, the "mystery" of the formula has long dominated the research into Greek fire. var current_date = new Date(); month_value = current_date.getMonth(); day_value = current_date.getDate(); year_value = current_date.getFullYear(); document.write( months[month_value] ); The Greek Fire - History of Greek Fire - Interesting Information about Greek Fire - Greek Fire Facts - Greek Fire Info - Middle Ages Weapon - Middle Ages Weapon - Middle Ages Wepon - The Greek Fire - Greek Fire History - Information about Greek Fire - Greek Fire Facts - Greek Fire Info - Siege Weapons - Information about Siege Weapons - Siege Weapons Facts - Siege Weapons Info - Middle Ages Period era - Siege Weapons - Siege Weapons History - Information about Siege Weapons - Siege Weapons Facts - Siege Weapon Info - Middle Ages Period era - Middle Ages Period Life - Seige Engines - Seige Weapon - Seige Weapons - Research paper - Research study - Castle siege weapons - Middle Age siege weapon - Design - Building - Construction - Waepons - Paper research - Medieval - Middle Age Siege Weapon - Greek Fire - Written By Linda Alchin. I love researching chemistry, and Greek Fire has always fascinated me for one reason or another. It proved to be the deciding force in many Byzantine naval battles. I chose Greek Fire because of its incredibly important role in the rise of one of history’s greatest empires. Average C12H23. This terrifying fiery substance stuck like glue to almost any surface and was nearly impossible to extinguish except with sand, salt, or urine. Greek Fire Recipe - the IngredientsThe Greek Fire recipe for Greek fire included the following ingredients which are defined as follows: Understanding the properties of the ingredients which were possibly included in the recipe or formula for Greek Fire explains why its exact composition was kept such a closely guarded secret/. One of the major reason the Byzantine Empire lasted for as long as it did. Recipe inspirations come from the weirdest places. Three parts are necessary for combustion to occur: Oxygen, Fuel, and Heat. The products are Nitrogen gas, Hydrogen gas, and Carbon Dioxide. It’s based on a classic Greek dip made with feta cheese and roasted red peppers; it gets a kick of heat, which you can adjust to your taste, from cayenne pepper. Fire cider can be taken straight by the spoonful, added to organic veggie juice (throw in some olives and pickles for a non-alcoholic, healthy bloody mary! In addition to performing the project on a heat-safe surface, it's a good idea to do it in a well-ventilated area, under a fume hood, or outdoors. The Calcium Oxide acts as both an oxidizer and a heat source since it reacts exothermically with water to produce Calcium Hydroxide. He has a very high IQ but very poor social skills. The invention of Greek Fire is credited to a Christian Greek named Kallinikos (aka Callinicus) who escaped to Constantinople from Muslim-held Syria in 668 CE. "; "Greek Fire fighters stated"We put out the fire, and before we had got it under, we were covered from head to foot with the fire-darts that the Saracens shot across the river." months[0] = " Discover the vast range of useful, leisure and educational websites published by the Siteseen network. Preheat a well seasoned cast iron skillet on medium-high heat until smoking. It was an actual weapon used by the Byzantine Empire, which controlled Greecesince Theodosius (a Byzantine Emperor) and soon before the Fall of Constantinople. Some form of bitumen, such as tar or asphalt, was likely used as a base. Some remain convinced that quicklime was part of the mixture, since it catches fire in the water. A Greek alchemist and inventor named Kallinikos is commonly cited as the one who created the incendiary mixture. months[2] = " Check out the interesting and diverse websites produced and created by the international publisher in the Siteseen network. The heat source can vary, although most commonly it is provided by friction or an already-lit flame or spark. Pour in olive oil. The Arabs created their own version of the mixture, and although it was not nearly as potent as the original, it still proved a deadly force on the battlefield. "; Fire feta is perfect because it’s super creamy and has a vibrant flavor, while still being healthy. There may be a small amount of smoke.